Still with added video!
Whether it’s important, depressing or just entertaining, the telecoms industry is always one which attracts attention.
Here are the stories we think are worth a second look at this week:
Facebook reignites the fires of its Workplace unit
Facebook has announced its challenge to the video-conferencing segment and a reignition of its venture into the world of collaboration and productivity.
Trump needs fodder for the campaign trail, maybe Huawei fits the bill
A thriving economy and low levels of unemployment might have been the focal point of President Donald Trump’s re-election campaign, pre-pandemic, but fighting the ‘red under the bed’ might have to do now.
Will remote working trends endure beyond lockdown?
It is most likely anyone reading this article is doing so from the comfort of their own home, but the question is whether this has become the new norm is a digitally defined economy?
ZTE and China Unicom get started on 6G
Chinese kit vendor ZTE has decided now is a good time to announce it has signed a strategic cooperation agreement on 6G with operator China Unicom.
ITU says lower prices don’t lead to higher internet penetration
The UN telecoms agency observes that, while global connectivity prices are going down, the relationship with penetration is not as inversely proportion as you might think.
Jio carves out space for yet another US investor
It seems the US moneymen have a taste for Indian connectivity as General Atlantic becomes the fourth third-party firm to invest in the money-making machine which is Jio Platforms.
Telecoms.com Daily Poll:
The US Attorney General has been banging on about 5G, hot on the heels of demands the country wins at 6G too.
Never before has telecoms been so politicised. US President Trump is increasingly relying on his demonization of Huawei for political capital and now Attorney General Bill Barr has decided to position the ‘race to 5G’ as a matter of critical national security importance.
Speaking at a Global CTO Roundtable on 5G Integrated and Open Networks Barr said “The United States and our partners are in an urgent race against the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to develop and build 5G infrastructure around the world. Our national security and the flourishing of our liberal democratic values here and around the world depend on our winning it.
“Future 5G networks will be a critical piece of global infrastructure, the central nervous system of the global economy. Unfortunately, the PRC is well on its way to seizing a decisive 5G advantage. If the PRC wins the 5G race, the geopolitical, economic, and national security consequences will be staggering. The PRC knows this, which explains why it is using every lever of power to expand its 5G market share around the globe. The community of free and democratic nations must do the same.
“To compete and win against the PRC juggernaut, the United States and its partners must work closely with trusted vendors to pursue practical and realistic strategies that can turn the tide now. Although the ‘Open RAN’ approach is not a solution to our immediate problem, the concept of Integrated and Open Networks (ION), which was the topic of yesterday’s roundtable, holds promise and should be explored. We can win the race, but we must act now.”
This seems like another strong buying signal for Ericsson, Nokia and US vendors like Cisco to get some easy public money in the name of mucking in to the collective effort, especially with O-RAN apparently being downgraded as a panacea. The two Nordic kit vendors will need to tread carefully before getting too cozy with the US state, however, or they can kiss what business they do have in China goodbye.
Meanwhile the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions has issued a call to action to promote US 6G leadership. “While innovation can be triggered in reaction to current market needs, technology leadership at a national level requires an early commitment and development that addresses U.S. needs as well as a common vision and set of objectives,” said Susan Miller, President and CEO of ATIS, possibly in acknowledgement of the panic the US has got itself into over 5G and of recent developments in China.
Mobile standards are, of course, global, so talk of regional races is somewhat disingenuous. What Barr presumably means is that, since Chinese vendors are banned from US telecoms infrastructure, he’s worried US 5G is going to be rubbish compared to the Chinese equivalent. Any non-Chinese telecoms company with a few bright ideas would be well advised to stick close to the US government as the public money tap seems to be well and truly open.
Chinese kit vendor ZTE has decided now is a good time to announce it has signed a strategic cooperation agreement on 6G with operator China Unicom.
For a country with such a novel approach to contract law, they do like to make a public show if signing agreements over in China, almost as if they’re trying to convince themselves they’ll be honoured. The ceremonial signing of the agreement also seems to double as a public show of strategic intent and corporate ambition.
They don’t go so far as to say what 6G actually is, however, other than one more G. There’s talk of technical innovation, integration with satellite networks and various flavours of IoT, so at this early stage we’re basically looking at 5G on steroids, which is fair enough. The announcement does move on to list some potential key technologies, which include three dimensional connectivity, Terahertz communication, and integrated communication/sensing, which all sound fun.
“ZTE and China Unicom will also verify the feasibility of these technologies through both the verification tests and the prototyping trials to achieve the 6G network performance targets, such as the peak data rate of 1 Tbps, the user experienced data rate of 20 Gbps, the volume traffic capacity of 100Gbps/m3,” says the announcement.
There is a certain symbolism to banging on about 6G when the previous generation has only just got started and the world is preoccupied with more immediate concerns. On the other hand, the announcement could just be a massive trolling exercise designed to wind up the internet nutters. ‘If you thought 5G was bad, get a load of this,’ they seem to be saying.
The Technical Research Centre of Finland is going to build the country’s first quantum computer, joining a growing European contingent to compete at the front of next generation computing technology.
VTT, Finland’s state-owned Technical Research Centre (Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy) announced that it will design and build the country’s first quantum computer, in partnership with “progressive Finnish companies from a variety of sectors”, aiming to “bolster Finland’s and Europe’s competitiveness” in this cutting-edge technology.
“In the future, we’ll encounter challenges that cannot be met using current methods. Quantum computing will play an important role in solving these kinds of problems,” said Antti Vasara, CEO of VTT. Referring to the country’s challenge of post-COVID-19 recover, Vasara said “it’s now even more important than ever to make investments in innovation and future technologies that will create demand for Finnish companies’ products and services.”
The multi-year project, with a total cost estimated about €20-25 million, will run in phases. The first checkpoint will be about a year from now, when VTT targets to “get a minimum five-qubit quantum computer in working order”, it said in the press release. Qubit, or “quantum bit”, is the basic information unit in quantum computing, analogous to binary digit, or “bit”, in classical computing.
In all fairness, this is a modest target on a modest budget. To put the 5-qubit target into perspective, by late last year, Google claimed that its quantum computer had achieve 53-qubit computing power. It could perform a task in 200 seconds that would take Summit, one of IBM’s supercomputers, 2.5 days by IBM’s own admission. By the time of writing, VTT has not responded to Telecoms.com’s question on the project’s ultimate target.
When it comes to budget, the VTT amount is easily dwarfed by the more ambitious projects. Although the most advanced quantum computers in the world are developed and run by the leading American technology companies and academic institutions, for example the MIT, IBM, and Google. But other parts of the world are quickly building their own facilities, including businesses and universities in Japan, India, China, and Europe. One of the high-profile cases recently is IBM’s decision to build Europe’s first commercial quantum computer in German’s state-backed research institute in Fraunhofer, near Stuttgart.
In addition to getting closer to and better serving the European markets in the future, IBM’s decision to build a quantum computer in Europe is also to do with GDPR requirement. While European businesses can use IBM’s quantum computer located in the US, through the cloud, they may hesitate when sending user data outside of the EU. The Fraunhofer project has been personally endorsed by Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor. The federal government has pledged €650 million investment for quantum computing, though not in the Fraunhofer project alone.
When it comes to quantum computing applications in the communications industry, at least two areas it can have strong impact. The first is security. Quantum computing will enable new modes of cryptography. The second is new materials. Daimler, the carmaker, has already used IBM’s quantum computers to design new batteries for its electric cars by simulating the complex molecule level chemistry inside the battery cells. On top of batteries, another research topic in new materials in the communications industry is to find silicon replacement as semiconductor in extremely high radio spectrums.
Despite its modest scope, the VTT undertaking is significant. Not only does it give Finland the right to boast of being the first Nordic country to build its own quantum computer, the success of the project would “provide Finland with an exceptional level of capabilities in both research and technology”. Faced with the worst economic crisis since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Nordic nation is looking to technology breakthroughs for sustainable revival and long-term competitiveness. Quantum computing capability of this project, if not pursuing supremacy, limited by its scope, may at least give Finland the table stake.
Participants at the virtual 6G Wireless Summit shared their thinking on what 6G can do and what research is needed to get the underlying technologies in place.
The 6G Wireless Summit 2020 would have kicked off in Finnish Lapland this morning. Instead, the organisers have moved it online. Except for the lack of face-to-face conversations, the virtual event is a competent substitute. This may not be the first time that speakers needed to record their presentations, considering companies had been already pulling out other events over the recent weeks. By the time the Summit was scheduled to start, most of the keynote speeches and presentations at the technical streams had been made available online.
A year ago, when Team Finland introduced its 6G Flagship programme (then called 6Genesis) at Mobile World Congress 2019, what 6G was about was almost a blank slate. Twelve months and 800 peer-reviewed papers later, the direction of 6G is much clearer and the vision is increasingly shared by industry experts and their academic partners.
Having watched six of the seven keynotes (Huawei’s speech has yet to be made available by the time of writing), we can see a clear convergence between the speakers’ views on both what 6G is expected to do and where research investment should be made to make those expectations come true.
Even their 6G vision taglines could look rather similar. For example, Harish Viswanathan, Head of Radio Systems Research Group at Nokia Bell Labs, believed 6G will “unify the experience across physical, digital and biological worlds”, while Dr. Fang Min, Director of 6G Research & Collaboration in the ZTE’s Wireless Division, saw 6G “integrating the physical and digital world”.
The leading use cases expected for 6G are shared by most speakers. For instance, they all foresaw vastly increased interaction between human and intelligent machine. Both ZTE’s Dr. Fang and Ericsson’s Dr. Mikael Prytz, Head of Research Area Networks, called it “Internet of Senses”. This includes both enhanced brain-computer interaction, and, in the words of Nokia Bell Lab’s Viswanathan, in-body monitoring.
Another key use case referred to by the speakers is what Ericsson’s Prytz called Connected Intelligence, or what ZTE’s Fang called Internet of AI, meaning AI interacting with each other, intelligent machines serving other intelligent machines. Such a scenario will have strong implications on network designs which are now limited by human senses.
With 6G poised to operate on much higher frequency than 5G (for example the FCC granted >95GHz for experimental use), the shorter wavelengths will allow for higher localisation accuracy, possibly down to centimetre level positioning. One outcome of such precision will be full digital representations of the physical world, or “digital twins”, by also fusing data from other sources including network data. Network operators will also be able to generate interconnected and collaborative digital twins, and digital representation of larger objects and their environment. Nokia Bell Lab demonstrated a digital twin of a New Jersey street with drone-captured high-resolution data for wireless network optimisation, for example accurate signal propagation prediction.
These use cases need to be supported by new, advanced underlying technologies that will provide guidelines for research in the discipline in the coming years. New spectrum technologies are highlighted by all speakers as such a domain. This includes both radio technology on the so-called D-Band (140-180GHz) and above, and progress in material sciences. Bell Lab’s Viswanathan pointed out that transceiver design for such radio frequencies will be more sophisticated, and may need to use glass interposers instead of silicon. ZTE also sees “Beyond Silicon” as one of the leading 6G challenge.
Network architecture is another key technology requirement that needs to advance in the run-up to 6G. One such advancement is what Nokia Bell Lab’s Viswanathan sees in the trend of RAN-Core convergence. This is primarily driven by the need to move the core closer to RAN for low latency service as well as to make the RAN more centralised towards the cloud. A related trend highlighted by Viswanathan is the demand for hyper specialised slicing. He believes that network slicing should move from resource reservation in 5G to providing separate software stacks and functions by using different micro-services.
Both ZTE’s Fang and InterDigital’s Alain Abdel-Majid Mourad, Director Engineering R&D, stressed the importance and demand for innovation to meet 6G’s new KPIs. Network security in 6G is also highlighted. While Nokia Bell Lab’s Viswanathan saw in 6G a “sixth sense”, for example using real-time analytics of sensor data by AI, Ericsson’s Prytz believed that the holistic solution of hardware-based security, trusted computing, and secured enclave will form the base of the future computing networks.
When it comes to the timing, the speakers had a consensus that it would be around 2030 when 6G will start commercialisation. ZTE believed 3GPP will start more concrete 6G specification work in R22, which the company expects to see in 2029. See the chart below for ZTE’s detailed prediction for the timeline from 5G to Beyond 5G (B5G) and 6G.
In general, the speakers at the Summit look to have much more in common with their views on what they expect 6G to look like than a year ago, as well as sharing an understanding on what key research areas will be in the years to come. While there is no guarantee these predictions will turn out to be correct, Nokia Bell Lab’s Viswanathan put it best when he said, “We have 10 years to be proved wrong, and now can have fun predicting the future.”
Source: 6G Wireless Summit 2020, ZTE Keynote
Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo has become one of the first industry heavyweights to lay out its vision for 6G technology and service expectations.
In a recently published whitepaper, Japan’s largest mobile operator outlined what it believed how 6G would look like, including technology requirements, service scenarios, and the next step research agenda. NTT DoCoMo becomes the latest, as well as one of the first leading telecom operators, to set down a marker in the nascent but active 6G discussion.
This document was published 40 years after the then Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation launched what it claimed to be the world’s first cellular mobile communications service. The company believes the mobile telecom industry normally goes through a generational technology change every 10 years, while the model of value creation would undergo a step change every 20 years. It sees 5G such a step change, and 6G being an upgrade, though immensely better. The operator expects 6G service to start rolling out around 2030.
Somewhat confusingly, the NTT DoCoMo authors called the ramp up from 5G to 6G “5G Evolution”, a term that has been used by companies like AT&T and Ericsson to refer to the stage when the industry was running up from 4G to 5G, and appeared as a debatable logo on AT&T phones before the carrier’s 5G service was launched.
Source: NTT DoCoMo
Specifically, the NTT DoCoMo whitepaper lists these six technology benchmarks for 6G to achieve:
- Extremely high-speed and high-capacity communications, e.g. peak data rate to go >100Gbps;
- Extreme coverage extension, including coverage in high altitude, under sea, and in space;
- Extremely low power consumption and cost reduction, including alternative charging technologies;
- Extremely low latency, e.g. sub 1ms end-to-end latency;
- Extremely high reliability, e.g. availability to improve from “five-nine” to “seven-nine” (99.99999%)
- Extremely massive connectivity and sensing, e.g. handling 10 times as many connections as 5G does in comparable space
The operator sees these technology properties critical to realise the use cases ranging from the fusion between digital and physical environment and communication between humans and things to bridging the digital gap between different social groups and addressing other societal issues.
NTT DoCoMo believes the following should be the R&D focus areas in the years to come:
- New network topology
- Coverage extension including non-terrestrial network
- Frequency extension and improved spectrum utilization
- Further advancement of wireless transmission technologies
- Enhancement for URLLC and industrial IoT networks
- Expanded integration of variable wireless technologies
- Multi-functionalization and AI for everywhere in mobile network
What NTT DoCoMo has laid out, despite with more details, is not too different from what the Finnish 6Genesis programme announced at last year’s Mobile World Congress, including the expected timing of 6G rollout. The industry conversation has since picked up speed, with the first 6G Wireless Summit held in the Finnish Lapland in March.
The so-called “world’s first 6G White Paper” was published in September, to which the new NTT DoCoMo whitepaper has much in common, in particular the research agenda. However, the clout of one of the world’s largest mobile operators will lend weight to the ongoing discussion of what 6G should be about. While China has also thrown its weight behind 6G, we can expect to hear more about this topic at the upcoming MWC 2020.
Days after 5G was switched on by the three telecom operators in China, the Chinese government officially launched a 6G R&D programme.
Yes, you read it right. 6G is officially on the card. Reported by the Science and Technology Daily today, the official launch meeting was hosted by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) on 3 November, three days after the country’s three incumbent telecom operators started offering 5G commercial services. The government department oversees the country’s long-term strategy in science and technology, and also owns the newspaper.
Two organisations will be set up to drive 6G R&D in China. The 6G R&D Working Group will be composed of government representatives from different departments, and will be responsible for overall promotion and implementation of R&D in 6G. The Experts Group will include 37 scientists and technology experts from academia, research institutes, and businesses, and will be responsible for setting 6G R&D agenda and conducting technology evaluation, as well as advising on important government policies.
The government officials believed this will be a prescient programme, when 6G technology roadmaps and use scenarios are still far from having an industry-wide consensus. Such an early move will help China assume a driving role to define where the technologies are going. Some industry experts have estimated that 6G will start taking a more concrete shape from around 2030.
China is not the first country to officially start research in 6G. The Finnish government endorsed the “6Genesis” programme already last year. The programme, led by the University of Oulu in northern Finland, will run into 2016. The first 6G Wireless Summit was held in March in Levi, a ski resort in Finnish Lapland, and the world’s first 6G whitepaper, “Key drivers and research challenges for 6G ubiquitous wireless intelligence” was published in September.
Shortly before the Finns came onstage at Mobile World Congress to announce their ambitions and plans, the most high-profile advocate for 6G was President Donald Trump, who tweeted at the beginning of the year that he wanted 6G in the United States as soon as possible.
Even though Australia blindly followed the US down the Huawei-accusation rabbit hole, the Chinese vendor hasn’t given up on the country, using the 6G carrot to tempt the Aussies back into the fray.
Speaking at the Emerging Innovation Summit in Melbourne, a Huawei executive suggested Australian decision-makers have been short-sighted in addressing cyber-security concerns.
“The current approach being taken towards cyber-security on 5G mobile networks solves absolutely nothing – and that will be exposed further in 6G,” said Huawei Australia Chief Technology and Cyber Security Officer David Soldani.
This is of course assuming Huawei is an innocent party, though as little (if any) concrete evidence to prove guilt has been presented to date, the fair position would be to maintain this assumption of innocence.
“Blocking companies from certain countries does nothing to make Australia any safer from cyber-security issues – in fact it just makes things worse because they are not addressing the real issues on cyber-security.”
This is a point which has been raised frequently but those who advocate the inclusion of Huawei in communications infrastructure moving forward. Banning a certain company or technology from networks does not tackle the issue. For some, the most sensible route forward would be that of risk mitigation, an approach Vodafone in the UK has been very vocal about.
“Huawei is already way ahead of our rivals on 6G research and we can see that the way in which we will be gathering and consuming data on those 6G networks means the cyber security risks will increase,” Soldani added.
Although it might encourage moans from some corners of the industry, 6G is becoming a very real and increasingly important facet of the connectivity mix. 5G is of course not a reality yet, but for the R&D engineers, the job is complete. Work has moved out of the research labs and into production; for these employees it is onto the next task; 6G.
This is another common message which has come out of the Huawei ranks over the last few months; it is critical to work with us, not ignore us. And many of those on the technology side would agree also.
The reason the prospect of a Huawei ban is such a divisive and persistent topic is relatively simple; Huawei produces excellent products. Not only are these products cheaper, while the field support offered to telco customers is largely unrivalled, the products are genuinely at the top of their field. There are large crowds who would suggest Huawei is market leader on in the radio and transmission segments.
“The communique from the Five Eyes was absolutely clear that countries need to ensure entire supply chains are trusted and reliable to protect our networks from unauthorized access or interference,” Soldani said.
“This means there is absolutely no point in simply banning companies from certain countries – it actually makes Australia less secure because it means we have to then increase our reliance on just one or two other vendors – neither of whom are having their equipment tested.”
This is another point which, once again, has been thrown around quite often by Huawei, but is also valid; no-one is 100% free of cybersecurity risk. By reducing the number of attack points for cyber-criminals, arguably it becomes more difficult to defend and the chances of a breach increase.
These are all perfectly valid points, but Huawei is trying to prove a negative here. Nothing which can be said or presented to the world would completely exonerate the firm of suspicion, especially with the US Government constantly hinting there is evidence of wrong-doing. The fact that no-one outside the White House or the Foreign Department has seen this evidence does appear to be irrelevant to some, though that is not to say it does not exist.
This issue is quite frankly becoming tiresome. Of course, governments around the world have a duty to ensure companies are acting responsibly through the sourcing and deployment of secure and resilient products, but the issue is become tedious to discuss week on week. Unfortunately, as the UK Government continues to kick the can down the road, the debate is likely to continue.
Although the UK is finding it difficult to maintain friendships with its peers inside and outside of the European Union, it is still an incredibly influential voice. The Supply Chain Review has attracted interest from numerous parties around the world, and the decision will be carefully scrutinised. It might be rubbing nations up the wrong way with Brexit, but its opinion still matters.
Some nations of course benefit from the on-going stand-still and some don’t. The UK doesn’t benefit as telcos are still no wiser whether supply chains will be in tatters and numerous other countries that rely on Huawei, Germany, Spain or Italy for example, are in the same boat. Australia is in a tricky position as banning Huawei limits the options which are out there. This present complications from a resilience and competition perspective.
The US appears to be one of the few nations which is not going to be impacted. Deployment might be a bit more expensive due to decreased competition, but the telcos have never had the opportunity to include Huawei in plans so there is no disruption from this on-going saga. The US might well be a lost cause, but it does appear Huawei believes it can charm Australia back on-side.
Huawei might not have given up on Australia, but as long as the White House is singing from this hymn sheet, it is likely to be nothing more than a Sisyphean task.
It may still be the early days of 5G, with commercial services switched on only in a limited number of markets, but the industry is already looking further ahead. Through discussions with industry experts and academics as well as through our own research, the Telecoms.com Intelligence team has put together a briefing to explore the possible next steps for 5G, the shape the next generation mobile communication technologies might take, and what they would mean for industry stakeholders.
Here we are sharing the opening section of the briefing, which is available for free to download here.
Why it matters
5G finally went live in 2018 and the rollout of commercial networks has been accelerating since. By the beginning of July, commercial 5G services were being offered by nearly 20 operators in a dozen countries in North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East. Here is the (now likely incomplete) list:
- North America: US (Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint)
- Asia Pacific: South Korea (SK Telecom, KT, LG Uplus)
- Europe: Finland (Elisa), Estonia (Elisa Estonia), Switzerland (Sunrise, Swisscom), UK (EE, Vodafone), Italy (Vodafone Italia, TIM), Spain (Vodafone Spain), Germany (Deutsche Telekom), Romania (RCS&RDS, Vodafone Romania), Monaco (Monaco Telecom)
- Middle East: UAE (Etisalat), Saudi Arabia (STC), Qatar (Ooredoo), Kuwait (Zain)
Running alongside the commercial rollout, 5G trials continue to be conducted in different markets, and spectrum is being auctioned by multiple authorities. Viewed as one of the strongest contributors to the 5G market worldwide, China, the country with the largest mobile subscriber base, has awarded four 5G licences, well ahead of what the market has expected.
At the same time, however, some in the industry cannot help but feeling underwhelmed by the 5G services on offer. Despite the promises of advanced use cases such as industrial IoT and driverless cars, all the commercial services currently have to offer is enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), meaning service providers have relied on fast internet access and high data speed as the key selling points. This has led purists to claim what we have now is not real 5G.
There are reasons for this discrepancy. All the commercial networks so far have been deployed in non-standalone (NSA) mode, for which the specifications have already been agreed and locked down by the 3GPP. This has helped accelerate the commercial rollout, but also limits what the networks can do. This is not all bad, as high-speed internet access is the easiest feature to communicate and the most accessible business case to consumers.
But launching 5G services in NSA mode, where the 5G radio access network connects with the 4G core platform, also limits the value proposition to industrial verticals: For example, NSA mode enables network slicing (a long-heralded feature of 5G) only in the core. However, an end-to-end standalone (SA) mode 5G network, comprising the RAN and next-generation 5G packet core capabilities, enables slicing in the RAN as well as the core, opening up more options and business cases for mobile operators.
Timing is the key factor, because work on the SA mode specifications is still ongoing. Some operators, not wanting to go through the potential pain of migrating from NSA to SA mode 5G and wanting to launch with a broader range of new services beyond just enhanced mobile broadband, may choose to wait for technologies that are based on the SA mode specifications, which are due to be available from 2020. That set of specifications will include better support for Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) and massive IoT services, though the specifications for Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) for new radio (NR) will not be frozen until Release 17. The 3GPP schedule is still open though it is likely that R17 will be completed in the first half of 2021.
All this means that, in mid-2019, we are only seeing the very beginning of 5G, and there is still much to look forward to in the years to come, not only to unleash the full potential of the “real” 5G, but also for the communications industry to have a better grasp of what new value propositions it can create for the enterprise users in many verticals, even beyond what 5G can deliver. This leads some sections of the industry to already start thinking about “beyond 5G”, or more specifically, 6G.
The rest of the briefing includes sections on:
- The current state of play
- What is 6G, and who is doing what?
- Next steps
- An interview with Professor Ari Pouttu, University of Oulu, Finland
To access the full briefing please click here