The latest complaints data shared by UK telecoms regulator Ofcom reveals the level of moaning are at their lowest since it started collating them.
Ofcom has been logging consumer complaints about landline, broadband, mobile and pay TV services since 2010. The fact that they are at their lowest level ever would appear to indicate UK CSPs are doing a great job. Of course people could have just given up, or have become steadily more apathetic, or have found more effective ways to punish errant telcos than moaning to Ofcom, but let’s give them the benefit of the doubt.
“Although we’re encouraged that complaints are at their lowest levels since we started shining a light on this, some telecoms and TV companies are still falling short,” said Jane Rumble, Ofcom’s Director of Consumer Policy. “We expect those providers to up their game and deliver better service to all their customers.”
In the tables below you can see first the historical totals for the four categories of complaints and then the most recent ones for broadband, mobile and pay TV. We haven’t bothered with the landline ones because we figure nobody cares anymore. Now that Vodafone has got its act together there are no outstanding poor performers in mobile and similarly BT seems to have sorted out its pay TV operations.
The UK market proved to a be a success over the last three months for Liberty Global, though the same could not be said for the Belgium and Swiss operations.
Total revenues for the quarter stood at $2.9 billion, a 1.3% increase, with the UK business posting 3.6% growth. While this might sound positive, this is compared to 10.8% for the nine months of 2018 proving there is appetite in the UK for a full-fibre diet. Unfortunately, the success could not be replicated elsewhere, with the Belgium business dropping year-on-year revenues by 1.5% and the bottom falling out of the Swiss bucket with a 8.1% decrease.
“The Swiss market remains challenging but we have a number of initiatives that we believe will improve performance,” said CEO Mike Fries. “Our turnaround plan is underpinned by revamped video products, a refreshed MySports programming line-up, the launch of 1 Gig broadband speeds and a new and improved MVNO offering.
“The continued operating and financial momentum at Virgin Media helped fuel our Q3 results. With respect to our U.K. subscriber growth, we generated over 100,000 net additions, which represents a record third quarter performance. This achievement was supported by strong volume growth in both our Project Lightning and legacy footprints.”
Looking specifically at the UK business, cable revenues declined by 0.7% year-on-year to $2 billion, while mobile revenue increased 2.4% to $416 million and enterprise revenues were up 6.1% year-over-year to $491 million. Operating income decreased 4.8% year-over-year to $592 million, though with promising growth on the top-line, and an additional 109,000 subscribers to account for, overall you could say a good three month’s work.
With Liberty Global still on course to dispose of its businesses in Germany and Central Europe to Vodafone, the team might be able to turn more attention to the troublesome Belgians and Swiss.
TalkTalk has launched its Fairer Broadband Charter calling into question whether competitors know the definition of simple concepts such as honesty and fairness.
According to research from TalkTalk, 87% of customers feel it is unfair providers raise prices mid-way through contracts, with 54% of consumers supporting a complete ban on these price hikes. While these might seem like obvious statements to make, they do fit quite comfortably upon the beautifully groomed high-horse TalkTalk CEO Tristia Harrison is trotting along currently.
“Telecoms companies have been ripping-off consumers for far too long,” said Harrison. “The industry has to change to rebuild trust with consumers. We led the way two years ago and became the first provider to guarantee no mid-contract price rises. It’s proved hugely popular and today we’re going even further. Our Fairer Broadband Charter sets out three simple ways we’ll put customers first. I’m challenging our rivals to follow our lead so that the whole industry can rebuild trust with customers.”
While any research conducted or commissioned by a telco should be taken with a plate full of salt, TalkTalk does have a point and the Fairer Broadband Charter should create a position where customers do feel valued. What is quite interesting is a challenger brand actually offering something of value to a customer, instead of initiating a race to the bottom. While lower prices are often appreciated by customers, margins are realised elsewhere perhaps explaining poor performance and woeful customer service. It could be seen as somewhat of a hollow victory.
The Fairer Broadband Charter is essentially a challenge to the industry, with TalkTalk hoping to set the pace with other telcos following suit. Perhaps marketing campaigns down the road will be built on the ‘look what we made everyone else do’ or ‘they all needed to copy us’ messages. It isn’t necessarily the worst idea we have ever come across for a challenger brand.
Looking at the three pillars, the first is a continued commitment to maintaining the agreed upon prices throughout the contract. Sounds simple, but all major ISPs have introduced a mid-contract price hike to some degree over the last 18 months according to TalkTalk. Secondly, a connection guarantee will be introduced, allowing new customers to ditch the contract in the first 30 days if they are not happy. This is not necessarily a new one, as Vodafone introduced such an idea recently. Finally, the TalkTalk team will contact customers before their contract ends to ensure they do not get automatically put onto a higher priced plan upon automatic renewal.
These are of course all nice ideas, but it shows the woeful state of affairs in the telco industry if this new Charter is deemed going above and beyond. In most other industries, this would be considered the status quo or bare minimum requirements. For too long customer satisfaction has been an afterthought, instead focusing on enticing new customers with embarrassingly-poor Kevin Bacon adverts which make the brand seem dated, desperate and as creative as a dull shade of worn leather.
The tide is beginning to turn but the traditional telcos, in both mobile and broadband, are having their hands forced by challenger brands.
At the Cable Next-Gen Europe event in London a panel discussed the lessons learned from offering 1 Gbps domestic broadband.
It seems like the only way the ISP industry thinks it can persuade consumers to hand over more of their hard-earned cash is to promise ever-better performance. But consumers can be an awkward bunch and have a nasty habit of expecting that promised boost to be delivered. To make things worse they’re not shy about voicing their displeasure to expensive customer service departments.
They just won’t listen to reason. You can try explaining the problem is at their end thanks to rubbish routers, decrepit devices and unhelpful walls but it falls on deaf ears. As far as they’re concerned they’ve been promised 1 Gbps, they’re not getting it and they want to know what the company that took their money is going to do about it.
The consensus among the panel, which featured ISPs, specialist wifi vendors and a big kit vendor, was that wifi is the ISP’s problem whether they like it or not. A big reason for this is that regular punters aren’t even interested in the various technical challenges involved in delivering the promised bandwidth; they only care about the end result.
Having said that there are a lot of technological solutions to this problem, such as mesh wifi as offered by companies like Plume, which was represented on the panel. Mesh looks like a good answer to coverage problems resulting from the limited range of wifi routers, physical obstructions, etc. It’s quite a trending buzzword in the industry right now but even the mesh vendors were careful not to position it as a panacea.
Similarly successive generations of wifi technology, now belatedly using a more consumer-friendly naming scheme, only address part of the problem. Even if you have a 1 Gbps service and the latest Wi-Fi 6 router, of all your devices still have 802.11g wifi chips, which is apparently still commonplace, then you’re still going to get rubbish performance.
According to a straw poll among the panel it’s not uncommon for there to be 20+ wifi connected devices in a given home, through which CSP customers will assess the quality of their service. For this reason there was a consensus that there will be an explosion in managed wifi services offered by CSPs in the near future.
The Supreme Court has rejected attempts by the telco industry and the Trump administration to completely erase net neutrality rules from the lawbooks.
With petitions filed by AT&T and various industry lobby groups to quash a ruling made in favour of the Obama-era net neutrality rules in 2015, a ruling which is the only glimmer of hope for net neutrality’s survival, the Supreme Court offered a lifeline. It seems rolling back net neutrality is not enough for FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, as the Republican is seemingly attempting to destroy any future attempts to reinstate the rules, which the 2015 District Court ruling holds.
While Pai and his cronies have effected taken the US back to the light-touch regulatory playing field of 2015, moves made by his predecessor Tom Wheeler to reclassify the internet service providers still stood. In passing net neutrality rules, Wheeler classified ISPs in the same league as telephony providers, and therefore under stricter regulation. This decision was upheld by the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, which AT&T, NCTA, CTIA, USTelecom, and the American Cable Association were challenging here.
The presence of this case might not have any impact on the telcos today, though it would offer any future administration, who might be pro-net neutrality, a foundation to rebuilt the walls of regulation. Pai doesn’t just want to remove the rules, he wants to drive the concept of net neutrality to extinction with no prospect of return.
This ruling however, is a win for the net neutrality camp, a rare one which just might add enough momentum to sustain life until a change in administration.
“This is good news for net neutrality supporters,” said John Bergmayer, Senior Counsel at Public Knowledge, a pro-net neutrality lobby group which is also suing the FCC for the initial roll back. “The DC Circuit’s previous decision upholding both the FCC’s classification of broadband as a telecommunications service, and its rules prohibiting broadband providers from blocking or degrading internet content, remains in place.
“While the current FCC has repealed those rules – a decision Public Knowledge is currently challenging in court – this means that the previous decision is binding on the current FCC, and on the DC Circuit panel that hears the current challenge. Much of the current FCC’s argument depends on ignoring or contradicting the D.C. Circuit’s earlier findings, but now that these are firmly established as binding law, the Pai FCC’s case is on even weaker ground than before.”
The NCTA, the Internet and Television Association, is unsurprisingly miffed with the decision.
“It is not surprising that the Supreme Court declined to hear this case dealing with the Wheeler FCC’s 2015 Order,” the NCTA said in a statement. “Once the current FCC repealed the 2015 Order, almost all parties – including NCTA – agreed that the case was moot. Today’s decision is not an indication of the Court’s views on the merits but simply reflects the fact that there was nothing left for the Court to rule on.”
It seems the absence of two Republican Supreme Court judges was the deciding factor here. The newly, and controversially, appointed Justice Brett Kavanaugh removed himself from the process, having participated in the judgement of the original appeal, while Chief Justice John Roberts supposedly owns shares in AT&T.
For the pro-net neutrality supporters this was a critical win in the courts. Firstly, for the rules to be reinstated the classification as telcos as common providers is a must, though momentum was gathering for Pai and his cronies in the blood-thirsty mission.
This is not to say net neutrality camp is not without its support, but with President Trump adding his weight to the hunting trip, the pressure was starting to build. Another factor is precedent. The legal community use decisions made elsewhere in the industry for guidance, and there were a lot of decisions going against net neutrality over the last few months. Momentum was building and the issue is becoming increasingly politicised. The light was fading, though the 2015 decision being upheld is a win.
Whether this decision acts as a catalyst for net neutrality momentum and support remains to be seen, though California’s challenge to the FCC is still hanging in the balance. After signing its own net neutrality rules in State Law, despite contradictions with federal agency positions, California has decided to put the implementation of the rules on-hold until it has resolved its own lawsuit with the Department of Justice which argues the state has acted unconstitutionally.
Elsewhere around the US, various states are lining up their own, local, net neutrality rules. Washington State has already signed its own into law, while states such as Hawaii and New York are seemingly waiting for various rulings. While the approach might be broadly similar, there will be differences in each state. This patch-work of regulatory environment is something the US government is very keen to avoid, and it would turn into an operational disaster for the telcos.
In a separate lawsuit, 23 Attorney Generals throughout the US, including Maine, North Carolina, Rhode Island and Delaware, led by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, are challenging the original 3-2 decision made by the FCC to roll back the net neutrality rules. The criss-cross of lawsuits, each of which relies somewhat on another decision and precedent, is starting to become complicated.
The dominos are certainly lining up across the US, each decision may send the entire stack into freefall. The weight of each ruling is getting heavier and heavier.
Verizon has unveiled a new corporate structure in an attempt to make a lean, mean, money-making machine at the dawn of the 5G era.
While many of these announcements are usually coupled with some form of job cuts, there doesn’t seem to be one in this case. We’ve been unable to locate the relevant forms on the Securities and Exchanges Commission website, though considering there have been numerous ‘streamlining’ initiatives already announced, it might be a case of fitting the business around the new headcount.
“This new structure reflects a clear strategy that starts with Verizon customers,” said CEO Hans Vestberg. “We’re building on our network transformation efforts and the Intelligent Edge architecture to deliver new customer experiences and optimize the growth opportunities we see as leaders in the 5G era. We’re focused on how our technology can benefit customers’ lives and society at large.”
The new Verizon business will be organized into three business functions (Consumer, business and Media), supported by a network and IT organization, and corporate-wide staff functions. The consumer group will feature both the wireless and the broadband business units, as well as wireless wholesale, led by Ronan Dunne, who is currently President of Verizon Wireless. The business unit will include the wireless and wireline enterprise, small and medium business, and government businesses, as well as wireline wholesale and Verizon Connect, the company’s telematics business, headed up by Tami Erwin, the current EVP of Wireless Operations. The media unit will essentially be the Oath business, with current CEO Guru Gowrappan in charge. Kyle Malady will lead the network and technology department, while there will no changes to the management team on the corporate side.
While job losses have been an unavoidable topic in the telco world over the last couple of years, Verizon made a pretty weighty announcement last month. In an effort to trim the number of lifers and dead-weight in the management layer, Verizon offered 44,000 staff a redundancy package of three weeks of severance pay for every year worked, though it is not entirely clear how many heads the telco want to count rolling out the front door.
As it stands, Verizon currently employs 153,000 people across its various markets, though this figure was as high as 183,400 in 2012. What is worth noting is that it would be unfair to point the finger of destruction at Verizon alone, the trend is clearly visible across an industry rocked by OTTs, and a North American market which has consistently and aggressively sought to undercut rivals.
With many telcos around the world attempting to take advantage of the convergence trend, perhaps this new structure will offer Verizon a leg-up. The launch of its 5G fixed wireless access business certainly gives the business something to talk about, though with both the consumer wireless and broadband units now on the same branch of the family tree, a more consolidated approach on products, tariffs and marketing can be taken. How this impacts the Verizon message remains to be seen, though an aggressive 5G assault is almost guaranteed with new devices promised over the next 12 months.
Research from RepeaterStore suggests only 41% of US consumers were aware 5G is just around the corner, and while the conversation for many telcos is now focusing on the enterprise side, in the US the 5G p*ssing contest appears to be circling the consumer. With such low consumer knowledge of 5G, the telcos will have to do a considerable marketing push to communicate the benefits of 5G.
Ofcom has unveiled its latest edition of its business connectivity market review with an all too familiar feel; how can it force Openreach and BT to play nicer with competitors.
As with any former state-owned monopoly, BT/Openreach is in the enviable position of having the groundwork already laid for future-proof infrastructure. Of course it has not done enough across the years to meet the demands of tomorrow’s fibre-based diet, though one factor behind this is a lack of external pressure on the business. Without competition, the enforced need to invest and innovate is not there. This is ultimately Ofcom’s objective; create an environment which encourages other ISPs to lay their own connectivity foundations, decrease the reliance on Openreach and improve connectivity options for the consumer.
“We want to give companies greater flexibility to lay fibre networks that serve residential or business customers,” Ofcom said in a statement. “So today, we are consulting on proposals to allow access to Openreach’s ducts and poles to companies offering any type of telecoms services including high-speed lines for large businesses, networks carrying data for mobile operators and high capacity lines supporting broadband services. We intend to implement this unrestricted duct access from spring 2019.”
This review focuses on the areas where there is minimised or no competition for BT. Ofcom believes BT currently has almost 5,600 local exchanges, though at roughly 5,000 of these sites there is competition from fewer than two competitors. BT’s position has been deemed unacceptable in these areas.
Starting with the areas where there is evidence of potential competition, but BT still maintains ‘significant market position’, Ofcom will no longer impose a cost-based charge control or quality of service standards on BT’s wholesale services, which combined with access to BT’s ducts and poles, the theory is competitors will have a stronger incentive to build their networks.
In areas where network competition is unlikely to be a reality, Ofcom has proposed a price cap for services at 1 Gbps and below to protect customers and provide certainty and stability over the course of the review. What is worth noting is that this is a relatively short-review, as while the proposals could come into play next spring, 2021 would see a new review and therefore new proposals.
The final proposal comes at the 4,300 exchanges where BT faces no competition from rival operators for inter-exchange connectivity, and Ofcom has deemed opening up the ducts and poles will have little impact. Rival networks are too far from these exchanges to make it economically viable to serve these exchanges, therefore BT is the only choice as a supplier for backhaul. Ofcom is proposing a requirement for dark fibre at cost for inter-exchange circuits that connect to these locations.
This is of course not the first time the dark fibre suggestion has emerged from Ofcom. In April, Openreach officially launched a compromise between full dark fibre access and full managed service after months of bickering and reviews with BT attempting to resist the Ofcom intervention. Ofcom seemingly lost that battle, with fingers being pointed at suspect market definitions, though now it appears ready to restart the assault.
This is of course only the consultation stage of the process, though the plans are to get the new rules in place by next spring. Whether this timetable is realistic with the almost guaranteed legal challenge from BT remains to be seen, but this is just another step in the never ending Ofcom quest to improve connectivity and competition across the UK.
The metamorphosis currently underway in the communications networking industry is unprecedented, and while for some the evolution to a 5G world is akin to a caterpillar transforming into a butterfly, others are worried it will turn a functioning (but flawed) industry into something more frightening.
Of course, we don’t know how 5G is going to turn out. What we do know, though, is that it’s about much more than some souped-up new devices and a radio access network (RAN) on steroids. And while we are witnessing an increasing number of claims about 5G service ‘firsts’ in the industry, these initial launches are only scratching the surface of what is possible and, importantly, are basing their claims on the deployment of a limited number of next generation networking elements.
And that’s fine for 2018 and 2019 – it’s understandable that for some competitive and marketing reasons, being first with a 5G offer can be important. But what about in 10 years’ time? What technology and operational process advances will be needed to fulfil the full potential of 5G?
In our view, a successful 5G strategy will require network operators to address, in some way, a very broad range of technologies and processes, all of which will play a critical role in enabling them to capitalize on the full potential that a 5G deployment will offer.
All of these are pieces in the Big 5G Picture jigsaw puzzle: Miss, or dismiss, any of the 20 elements, many of which are interdependent, and the picture will be incomplete and opportunities lost. Deploy them together and there just might be something for 5G business case doubters to chew on.
What are these 20 elements? (And yes, that’s a suspiciously round number…)
We’re talking about the likes of SDN and NFV, “anyhaul” transport, edge computing, AI/analytics, IoT and C-V2X platforms and more, as well as the 5G radio access network (RAN), 5G core and devices. Here’s what our 5G Big Picture looks like:
And with each of these elements ultimately playing a critical role in full 5G deployments, that, in turn, is creating new opportunities for (and threats to) the thousands of companies that are aiming to become the technology and professional services partners for the world’s communications network operators.
Many vendors have already shifted to a 5G-oriented strategy, one that positions them to fulfill the needs of operators in relation to one or more of the puzzle pieces: Explaining to the market, staff, partners and investors their role in 5G, and why that’s important, is not so easy when there is often such a myopic view about what 5G is and what it ultimately entails.
So what are we trying to achieve with this presentation of the 5G Big Picture? It’s not an attempt to explain everything about the underlying technologies or dig deep into standards developments or software code — instead we’re trying to provide a relatively simple view of how important 5G is to so many industry developments.
And to be clear — this is just about the underlying technology elements and supporting processes that will make 5G services and applications possible: It’s not an attempt to identify the resulting services themselves. That’s why there’s no reference to gigabit broadband, interactive gaming, automated industrial robotics or remote surgery — this is all about the underlying and supporting tech.
It’s also very broad-brush — that’s why there’s no reference to specific virtual networking functions or to network slicing: these are capabilities enabled by the underlying technologies and supporting processes.
Before we get to the list of elements and provide a brief word about each of them, it’s worth taking a quick look at the underlying reasons why each of these elements is an important part of the 5G Big Picture.
To enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) and beyond!
The 5G noise has been building to an almost deafening crescendo for several years and we’re about to hit the first phase of significant service launches in major markets.
The first year (or even first few years) will be a public relations battle, but the early action will largely revolve around the delivery of enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), which in itself will be a step forward and, in fixed wireless scenarios, likely to shake up the broadband services market in general. In time it will also enable emerging services such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) and 8K video to mobile devices — and that will be a significant challenge in itself.
Such services require, at the very minimum, network upgrades in the radio access network (RAN) and supporting “anyhaul” (fronthaul and backhaul) packet and optical transport networks that carry video and data traffic to and from end-user devices. These launches do not require a full 5G Big Picture deployment.
But enhanced Mobile Broadband is just one of the now familiar three points of the 5G services triangle, a version of which you can see below.
Moving anticlockwise from eMBB we have the massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) that will be enabled by an extensive Internet of Things (IoT). All those billions of devices — 20 billion by 2023, according to a forecast from Ericsson — will need to be managed and while some of them will require very little in the way of data traffic flows, either to or from, some will put strain on networks, especially once high-resolution streaming video surveillance cameras become the norm in smart cities. These mMTC applications will require a significant number, but not the full suite, of elements.
But the major challenges come down the line when autonomous vehicles are let loose on the roads, and when the range of services dubbed Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) — aka “Critical Communications” — including industrial robot automation and remote surgery are launched: That’s when all the puzzle pieces need to be in place.
So let’s take a look at the 5G Big Picture piece by piece…
- 5G Radio Access Network: There isn’t going to be much happening in the 5G world without next-generation radio access network deployments and the early 3GPP specs are out… this is the element that defines most references to 5G and will continue to do so.
- 5G core: The intelligent heart of the 5G network that will allow capabilities such as network slicing.
- 5G devices: Coming soon! And more than just smartphones of course — end-user devices could be just about anything you can fit a 5G chip into.
- AI/next-gen analytics: Vast volumes of data will need to be sorted and analyzed, at the edge of the network as well as in central repositories, for advanced business and consumer services, particularly the Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) services, to be delivered. Machine-learning tools will underpin automated network management and operational processes: Manual processes will not be able to keep pace with requirements.
- NFV: To enable to rapid implementation/instantiation of services, 5G networks will be cloud-native NFV infrastructure (NFVi) architectures hosting virtual network functions (VNFs).
- SDN: Software-defined networking will be required to efficiently and effectively control the network and service delivery platform resources used to deliver services over the telco cloud and provide customers with control of the services they use.
- Next-gen network security: Manual network security processes will be pointless in a full 5G deployment — machine learning-enabled security systems will pre-empt and mitigate all manner of security threats across the distributed 5G network landscape.
- Identity management/authentication: A scalable approach to identity management and authentication, including the ability to support information exchange between distributed databases, will be needed to support services across billions of devices and multiple network slices without overloading the signaling infrastructure.
- ‘Anyhaul’ transport: The data traffic volumes and disaggregated nature of 5G radio access networks will require high-capacity, low-latency fronthaul (links from remote radios to baseband processing pools) and backhaul connectivity (links from access aggregation points to the metro network). Collectively, fronthaul and backhaul is referred to as “anyhaul.”
- Edge computing: The latency requirements of many services running over 5G can only be met by the deployment of a distributed cloud architecture, including the deployment of compute and storage resources at the network edge — at cell tower and basestation sites, in revamped central offices, and even in time at the “street furniture” level. What a great term that is — street furniture…
- 4K/8K video delivery platform: High-definition video will need to be delivered and managed as part of 5G service offerings, so the appropriate video infrastructure will be required.
- 5G test and measurement tools: Neither the vendors nor operators will get too far without being able to test and verify their new 5G systems and services, making these tools essential.
- IoT platform: Dedicated IoT platforms will be needed to manage and monitor the billions of devices that will be connected in a 5G world.
- C-V2X system: Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a dedicated cellular specification designed to connect vehicles to each other and anything else that’s relevant, so it looks to be an essential component of advanced 5G service deployments.
- Distributed ledger technology/blockchain: Blockchain technology is looking increasingly likely to play a role, alongside and supporting traditional databases, in helping to manage and secure transactions and identities once 5G is fully deployed.
- Next-gen BSS: Cloud-native business support systems with APIs to network and service controllers will be required to “monetize” and provide customer experience management for the broad array of cloud-based 5G services.
- Next-gen OSS: Silos of legacy operations support systems (OSS) are not going to cut it in a 5G world — like the BSS systems, cloud-based management tools will be required.
- Cloud-native development: There is a growing realization among network operators that DevOps processes, including Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD), will need to be adopted to ensure service support and delivery once the 5G telco cloud is deployed, so the massive cultural shift required is already underway at many operators.
- Process automation: Without automated processes, whether in the back office or at the front line, service providers will lack the speed and efficiency needed to survive in a 5G world. The shift towards automation will be slow but continuous as operators find the processes they can identify and break down into piece parts that can be replicated in code — and operators are already finding that placing their trust in machines rather than humans can deliver improved results.
- Great coffee: Yeah, we went there. The evolution to a fully functioning 5G network with all its bells and whistles is going to be a gargantuan task, one that cannot be undertaken without a ready supply of top-class roasted Arabica and Robusta and that, of course, requires the use of some dedicated hardware that absolutely cannot be hosted in the cloud…
So, that’s a brief run-down of the 5G Big Picture elements. Telecoms.com will be reporting on the development and deployment of all these, and no doubt more, in the months and years to come.
— Ray Le Maistre, Editor-in-Chief, Light Reading, for Telecoms.com