US social media sites have announced coordinated action designed to counter a propaganda campaign apparently designed to undermine the Hong Kong democracy protests.
Twitter was the first site alerted to this activity, with some users flagging up sponsored posts from state-run media that seemed biased against the mass gatherings in Hong Kong that are protesting moves to give the Chinese state greater power over the semi-autonomous region.
Every day I go out and see stuff with my own eyes, and then I go to report it on Twitter and see promoted tweets saying the opposite of what I saw. Twitter is taking money from Chinese propaganda outfits and running these promoted tweets against the top Hong Kong protest hashtags pic.twitter.com/6Wb0Km6GOb
Twitter also published a blog post titled Information operations directed at Hong Kong, in which it said “We are disclosing a significant state-backed information operation focused on the situation in Hong Kong, specifically the protest movement and their calls for political change.” This took the form of almost a thousand phoney accounts apparently designed to amplify messaging undermining the legitimacy of the Hong Kong protests, which have now been suspended.
Removing any doubt about censorship activity being coordinated between internet giants, Facebook then announced it is acting on a tip from Twitter to remove a few accounts suspected of ‘inauthentic behaviour’ from China. “Although the people behind this activity attempted to conceal their identities, our investigation found links to individuals associated with the Chinese government,” said the Facebook announcement.
Lastly, while not explicitly referring to China, this propaganda campaign has clearly prompted Twitter to announce it will no longer accept advertising from state-controlled news media entities. Somewhat belatedly is has dawned on Twitter that state-controlled media is sometimes a tiny bit biased towards the state that controls it, which can have direct political consequences. Who knew?
Meanwhile US President Donald Trump is persisting with his claims that Google exerted some deliberate influence against him in the 2016 US general election. He cites an unspecified report that claims up to 16 million votes were manipulated in favour of his opponent Hilary Clinton in the election and called for Google to be sued.
Wow, Report Just Out! Google manipulated from 2.6 million to 16 million votes for Hillary Clinton in 2016 Election! This was put out by a Clinton supporter, not a Trump Supporter! Google should be sued. My victory was even bigger than thought! @JudicialWatch
Clinton herself has unsurprisingly queried the validity of the claim by attacking the, still unspecified, source. A number of other media have also criticised the presumed source of the claim, most of which make no secret of their antipathy towards Trump. As ever Trump’s tweet will have an underlying tactical purpose, in this case to threaten Google and any other internet company that maybe tempted to use its platform to favour his 2020 opponent.
The debunked study you’re referring to was based on 21 undecided voters. For context that’s about half the number of people associated with your campaign who have been indicted. https://t.co/0zHnWvGjSv
US President Trump has invited a number of social media commentators to a discussion about the current digital environment.
This is being largely interpreted as an anecdotal investigation into the nature of social media censorship, with Trump having repeatedly raised his concerns on the matter. The major social media platforms don’t seem to have been invited, however, instead a selection of independent journalists, commentators and activists will be asked about their online experiences.
The White House hasn’t published a list of attendees, so here’s our own, in no particular order, derived from information already in the public domain. We’ve also included the number of Twitter followers each attendee has to provide some measure of their online influence. The summit takes place tomorrow.
Tim Pool – YouTube Journalist – 352k
James O’Keefe – Independent Journalist – 548k
Ben Garrison – Political Cartoonist – 176k
Charlie Kirk – Activist – 1.16m
Ali Alexander – Activist – 95k
Scott Presler – Activist – 226k
Bill Mitchell – Broadcaster – 445k
Carpe Donctum – Activist – 122k
PragerU – YouTube Commentator – 271k
Heritage Foundation – Think Tank – 649k
Media Research Center – Media Watchdog – 157k
Christian Ziegler – Activist – 3k
It has not gone unnoticed that nearly all of those invited are at the conservative end of the US political spectrum and Trump is known to be concerned that online censorship tends to affect conservatives disproportionately. It’s presumably not a coincidence that most of these conservatives also seem to be committed Trump supporters.
The presence of the two journalists at the top of the list indicates this will be more than just a Trump supporter love-in, however. “This event will bring together digital leaders for a robust conversation on the opportunities and challenges of today’s online environment,” a White House spokesperson is widely reported to have advised.
Pool has probably been chosen due to his high-profile grilling of Twitter on the Joe Rogan podcast, in which he argued some of its rules on speech it permits are demonstrably biased against conservatives. Similarly O’Keefe’s organisation Project Veritas has recently claimed to have exposed similar political bias at Google.
So it seems clear that at least one of the primary purposes of this summit is to enable the US government to gather evidence of bias in social media censorship. Earlier this year the White House opened a web form inviting people to submit such evidence, so it’s possible this will have influenced who was invited too.
While much commentary has focused on the perceived political agenda of this summit, the absence of not only the big tech companies but big media too indicates another angle. There is a growing body of anecdotal evidence that social media censorship is increasingly biased against independent commentators and thus in favour of corporate, institutional, establishment voices.
Leftist independent commentator David Pakman has alleged in the video below that the YouTube recommendation algorithm has been changed in order to favour corporate over independent media. Most of the independents he cites are also leftist, indicating this isn’t a predominantly political move.
It is well documented that YouTube has been anxious about the effect of some of its more contentious contributors on revenues for some time and has implemented broad censorship in an apparent attempt to appease big advertisers. If there is bias in the recommendation algorithm in favour of corporate media it’s probably because advertisers also favour them, but every piece of arbitrary censorship seems to create as many problems as it solves.
Meanwhile, Twitter is where Trump spends much of his time and so is probably the platform he scrutinises most closely. A US appeals court recently ruled that it’s unconstitutional for Trump to block people on Twitter, but this precedent had led to other US politicians who have blocked people on Twitter being sued. Elsewhere Twitter’s recent decision to ban any comment that ‘dehumanizes others on the basis of religion’ seems destined to raise questions about selective enforcement.
Not to be out-done Facebook recently updated its policy regarding ‘violence and incitement’ with the guidance shown in the screenshot below.
This seems to say that it’s OK to advocate high-severity violence (un-defined) against anyone Facebook considers to be a ‘dangerous individual’ or anyone said to be a violent criminal or sexual predator. Since Facebook explicitly identified several individuals as dangerous recently, some of those people have understandably interpreted this move as hostile to them.
That there is a growing body of evidence of a deeply flawed approach by social media companies to policing their platforms is undeniable. To what extent this involves political bias remains unclear, but Trump seems to think it does and, with the next US general election imminent, he seems increasingly disposed to bring the full force of the state against any tech companies deemed to be acting against the public, and his, interest. Those companies will doubtless be following this summit with interest.
We’ll leave you with Pool’s take on the whole thing.
Its often said the pen is mightier than the sword, but President Donald Trump seems to think his twitter account is the literary version of a dirty bomb.
In the latest example of the flurry of tiny hands scampering across the keyboard of an unsecured iPhone, the Commander in Chief has taken aim at AT&T, suggesting US citizens should turn elsewhere for their daily fix of connectivity.
I believe that if people stoped using or subscribing to @ATT, they would be forced to make big changes at @CNN, which is dying in the ratings anyway. It is so unfair with such bad, Fake News! Why wouldn’t they act. When the World watches @CNN, it gets a false picture of USA. Sad!
Those expecting some sort of scandal might be disappointed. AT&T hasn’t actually done anything wrong aside from owning CNN, a regular target for the President.
Just arrived in the United Kingdom. The only problem is that @CNN is the primary source of news available from the U.S. After watching it for a short while, I turned it off. All negative & so much Fake News, very bad for U.S. Big ratings drop. Why doesn’t owner @ATT do something?
What we are unsure of is how much of an impact these sorts of attacks will actually have on the AT&T brand. Of course, there will be millions who simply disregard the majority of messages which float out of the Oval Office, but there are probably as many who would take the President’s word as gospel.
There have been other attacks from Trump using the virtual highways, with Amazon CEO at the centre of one of these examples.
Back in April 2018, Trump set his eyes on the eCommerce giant. The stream of abuse suggested Amazon was being naughty with its tax returns, was holding the US Postal Service to ransom and Bezos’ purchase of the Washington Post was purely to acquire a lobbyist and a voice which could undermine the White House. Some points were fair, such as the creating accounting techniques, though the Presidential paranoia suggesting political propaganda perhaps showed a measure of the man’s ego.
In the war of words with Amazon, it was largely hot air. The President was flexing his muscles, without actually doing anything. If he wanted to do any real damage, he could have cancelled the AWS multi-billion-dollar contract with the Pentagon. But he didn’t.
Bearing this in mind, AT& shouldn’t have too much to worry about, though it certainly doesn’t have the same brand credibility as Amazon.
According to The Values Institute, a research and consulting practice solely focused on values based corporate culture, Amazon was the most trusted brand in the US in 2018. AT&T was the best scoring telco on the list, though it ranked down in 32nd. This is down from 14th in 2017. 32nd doesn’t sound too bad if you consider all the companies which operate in the US, though the scope of this survey is quite limited, only taking the biggest names into account.
Interestingly enough, AT&T finished below Taco Bell, which is regularly featured in a variety of toilet memes on the social media platforms.
Amazon has the credibility with US consumers to simply ignore any Twitter abuse from Trump, but telcos certainly do not have the same relationship with consumers, especially when you consider the recent race to the bottom. For some, telcos are utilities. It is a tough reputation to shake, while a constant focus on speed and price won’t help at all.
Looking at the potential impact of the President’s social media temper tantrums, it does seem to be short-term in most circumstances. This is not the first time President’s have named and shamed companies, President Kennedy did it in the 70s, but social media is a new beast. Most of the time with Trump’s rants, share price seems to be hit for a short period, though it recovers soon after. There doesn’t really seem to be any notable follow through from the President’s threats.
In the Amazon case, share price dipped by 11% during the exchange. The threat of intervention was enough to spook some. However, it took roughly two weeks for recovery, and since that point share price did increase almost 40% before a heavy fall last month.
Research from Juma’h Ahmad and Yazan Alnsour of University of Illinois also suggest there is limited impact from the President’s social media fury. In a study which looked at Presidential attention on 58 companies, the duo concluded there was no long-term, material consequence for the business, with any impact in the financial markets limited to three to five days.
Interestingly enough, Trump seems to be having less of an impact on the world as his term progresses. According to data from CrowdTangle (covered here by Axios), Trump’s interaction rate has fallen from 0.55% in the month he was first elected, to 0.16% in the month through to May 25 2019
The growth in Trump followers is still staggeringly large, though it appears he is not getting the same cut through as before. This might be down to a couple of different reasons, perhaps more laissez faire followers or maybe there is just too much noise reducing the effectiveness.
While there is a risk, especially considering the sustained nature of Trump’s hatred towards CNN, we’re not convinced whether an attack on AT&T’s reputation from Trump will have too much impact. However, the President has a track record of swaying the masses.
With much of public discussion now taking place on the three main social platforms the time has come to take editorial control away from their owners.
Even before the Cambridge Analytica scandal it had become apparent what a major role social media was already playing in public life. Politicians use Twitter to communicate directly with the electorate and spend billions on Facebook’s targeted advertising. Meanwhile a new generation of political and social commentators have been given their voice by YouTube and now attract audience numbers mainstream media can only dream of.
But all three of these platforms are commercial operations with obligations to maximise returns to their investors. In all three cases the business model is the classic media one of charging for access to their audience, which means they rely on advertisers for their revenue. This in turn can lead to conflicts of interest.
These have always existed in traditional media too. It is far more common than you might imagine for publications to receive pressure from advertisers to change editorial decisions under threat of advertising revenue being taken away if they don’t. They then face a simple choice: the short-term fix of capitulation to blackmail or the long-term investment in the trust of their audience and the credibility of their title.
The dilemma is different for social media, however, since they don’t produce the content they sell advertising against. Instead their business model has been to make is as easy as possible for anyone in the world to publish on their platforms, a model so successful that much of the advertising traditional media used to rely on has now moved to social media, such that digital ad spend is forecast to overtake traditional spend in the US this year.
Inevitably social media are facing the same kind of advertiser pressure traditional media always have, but their response is usually to capitulate. The reason for this is simple: they have no investment whatsoever in the content they host and no specific editorial theme or angle to protect. Because of this they seem much more ready to remove content and even ban users if they think is will keep the ad money flowing.
One other by-product of caving in to commercial pressure is that it sets a precedent, with advertisers emboldened to be ever more demanding with their requests. In the case of social media this has resulted in increasing pressure to ban from social media any contributors advertisers fear may harm their brands by association. This capitulation has also emboldened activists to call for bans of anyone they disagree with, sometimes even alerting advertisers to the PR danger to increase the pressure further.
This PR pressure came to a head for Facebook last week when it decided to ban several accounts it had unilaterally decided were ‘dangerous’ and to pre-brief a number of media about it before even notifying the users themselves. While opponents of the people bans applauded the move, there has been wider concern about the arbitrary nature of the action and the power of Facebook to decide who gets to take part in the public conversation.
A common argument at times like this, often made by people otherwise deeply suspicious of the motives of big corporations, is to insist that private companies like Facebook are free to police their platforms as they see fit. But the fact that those platforms is where most public discussion takes place and that those companies tend to just buy competitors when they get too big means this is a public concern both from a freedom of speech and a competition perspective.
Probably the most famous social media user is also arguably the most significant politician in the world: US President Donald Trump. He was deeply concerned by Facebook’s actions and, appropriately enough wasted little time Tweeting about it.
I am continuing to monitor the censorship of AMERICAN CITIZENS on social media platforms. This is the United States of America — and we have what’s known as FREEDOM OF SPEECH! We are monitoring and watching, closely!!
He went on to refer to one of the banned people – Paul Joseph Watson, a UK citizen – directly in subsequent tweets and retweeted a number people objecting to the move, noting it appeared to target people on the conservative side of the political spectrum. Watson responded by calling for him to revoke the protection internet platforms have from the consequences of what is posted on them, since it was now acting as a publisher.
Thank you Mr. President. Now hopefully Facebook will be stripped of its immunity under section 230 of the Communications Decency Act because it is clearly acting as a partisan publisher and not a platform. This is election meddling. — Paul Joseph Watson (@PrisonPlanet) May 3, 2019
Elsewhere one of the founders of Facebook published an op-ed calling for the break-up of Facebook on the grounds that it had grown too powerful and too much of that power is held by Mark Zuckerberg alone, who personally holds the overall majority of voting power in the company. Others have argued, however, that since Facebook isn’t a monopoly in any of its markets any attempt to break it up would be illegal and that better regulation would be much more effective.
Again it’s common for accusations of hypocrisy to be levelled at those who call for regulation to protect freedom of speech, but in this case the position is entirely consistent. If speech is being restricted by a private oligopoly then public intervention may be the only way to combat that. As any telecoms company could tell you, regulation of oligopolies in markets with high barriers to entry is commonplace and vital to ensure consumers aren’t held to ransom.
The father of the free market Adam Smith famously wrote the following in his definitive book ‘The nature and causes of the wealth of nations’, in reference to the necessity of regulating cartels: “People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.”
In this case we’re not talking about cartel behaviour, although sometimes their activities can seem suspiciously coordinated, nor is the primary concern a contrivance to raise prices. The commodity at stake is not money but the ability to take part in public discussion. This is arguably no less important a utility then water, electricity or telephony, but to date the companies that control it have faced far less scrutiny than utilities.
Such is this burden of responsibility that even Zuckerberg himself has publicly called for increased regulation. His underlying motives may be self-preservatory, but the logic is sound. Nobody thinks access to public conversation should be controlled by private companies, but currently there are now regulation in place to take that decision away from them. Zuckerberg seems to have concluded that if there were that would take a lot of the heat off him.
Decisive regulation may also pre-empt the litigation that is bound to hit social media companies as they continue to restrict their users. Watson indicated he’s tempted to take legal action, especially since the discovery phase would require Facebook to reveal the rationale behind his banning, possibly exposing the political bias he suspects is behind it. Watson also recently tweeted about a possible legal precedent that may be set in Poland, that would prohibit social media companies from acting against anything legal.
“If upheld by the courts, first in Poland and then on the European Union level, it would force the platforms to leave all lawful speech alone and stop taking down posts, profiles and pages simply because it feels like it.” https://t.co/yuBlmDW9i1
This would appear to be the best solution for everyone. Social media companies would be able to tell pushy advertisers that such decisions have been taken out of their hands, while users would have the law is their sole guide to acceptable public speech. There would still be the matter of different laws in different countries and deliberately censorious and ill-defined legal terms such as ‘hate speech’, but things would be a lot clearer than they are now.
Essentially this would mean that, in order to retain the protections afforded to platforms, social media would not be able to censor anything legal. Alternatively , if they want to take a more active editorial role they should be treated as publishers and be liable for all content published on them, right now they’re somewhere in between and that’s unsustainable. Here’s independent Journalist Tim Pool with a US take on the matter.
Social media giant Facebook has significantly stepped-up its censorship efforts by banning seven accounts, six of which are often described as ‘far-right’.
Alex Jones, his publication Infowars, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Laura Loomer, Paul Nehlen and Louis Farrakhan. Jones and Infowars, of which Watson is an editor, are known more for general conspiracy theories than any specific political stance, while Yiannopoulos is a notorious provocateur, Loomer a political activist, Nehlen a fringe US politician and Farrakhan the leader of The Nation of Islam.
“We’ve always banned individuals or organizations that promote or engage in violence and hate, regardless of ideology,” said a Facebook spokesperson in response to our query. The process for evaluating potential violators is extensive and it is what led us to our decision to remove these accounts.” The ban also applies to Facebook-owned social networking service Instagram.
Further enquiries revealed that all were banned for violating Facebook’s policies against dangerous individuals & organizations. Among the things Facebook considers to be violations include:
Calling for violence against people based on factors like race, ethnicity or national origin
Following a ‘hateful’ ideology
Use of ‘hate speech’ or ‘slurs’, even on other social media sites
Whether they’ve had stuff removed from Facebook or Instagram before
There are also two tiers of ban. Facebook told us it usually censors all other users from even praising these banned people and organisations, regardless of context, which implies it does allow criticism of them or indeed neutral commentary. But there’s another tier that covers people who haven’t transgressed according to the criteria above but are still considered ‘dangerous’ by Facebook according to unspecified criteria. They get banned but everyone else is still allowed to say nice things about them if they want and it’s unclear which category each of the banned people fall into, hence whether or not users should avoid saying nice things about them.
Facebook did indicate to us some of the signals that prompted it to take action in these cases. It looks like many of them are being punished for associating with Gavin McInnes, founder of Vice magazine and a provocateur in the Yiannopoulos mould. Jones recently interviewed him, Loomer ‘appeared with’ him and also praised another banned person, Faith Goldy, while Yiannopoulos himself also praised McInnes as well as banned activist Tommy Robinson. Farrakhan has been banned for multiple public statements disparaging Jews.
While all of the people banned have doubtless broken the state rules at some time or other, questions remain about the specificity of those rules and how indiscriminately they’re enforced. According to Wikipedia (not necessarily the most authoritative source but we have to start somewhere) hate speech is defined as ‘a statement intended to demean and brutalize another’.
On the surface this would seem to apply to the majority of discourse over social media, but the definition is typically narrowed to such statements that are deemed to be influenced by race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, sex, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity. As the Wikipedia page illustrates, every country has its own hate speech legislation, but Facebook has decided to draft its own.
‘A hate organization is defined as: Any association of three or more people that is organized under a name, sign, or symbol and that has an ideology, statements, or physical actions that attack individuals based on characteristics, including race, religious affiliation, nationality, ethnicity, gender, sex, sexual orientation, serious disease or disability,’ explains the Facebook community standards page.
If we take these guidelines literally, therefore, you can be abusive on Facebook, as people frequently are, so long as you don’t call for violence or make any reference to the person’s identity. This is obviously a very difficult thing to enforce, leading to concerns that there may be a degree of political or other bias in doing so.
A common example of this cited by those who perceive political bias is the case of Antifa. The name is an abbreviation of ‘anti-fascist’ and it’s a group set up to counter perceived far-right activity. There are, however, numerous reports of this activity involving violence, especially against a group founded by McInnes called the Proud Boys. Antifa has even been labelled a domestic terrorist group in the US and yet many of its Facebookpages remain unbanned.
The matter of actively campaigning politicians is another hot-button issue. Nehlen seems to be the only member of this newly-banned group to describe themselves as a politician, but in the UK at least two candidates standing in the imminent European elections have had their campaign accounts banned from Twitter due to the individuals in question having already been banned from that platform.
A common response to concerns about selective banning by social media platforms is that they’re private (although publicly-listed) companies and are thus free to ban whoever they please. The biggest problem with this argument is that they have also become the new public square, and the platform from which political campaigns are now largely based.
The Cambridge Analytica scandal hinged on concerns that Facebook had been used to manipulate elections and US President Donald Trump famously uses Twitter as his primary means of public communication. By selectively banning certain accounts social media companies not only open themselves up to accusations of political bias, they also run the risk of directly undermining the entire political process.
The latest mutiny at Google illustrates what a political game technology has become and it’s only going to get more so.
Last week Google announced the creation of ‘An external advisory council to help advance the responsible development of AI.’ In so doing Google was acknowledging a universal concern about the ethics of artificial intelligence, automation, social media and technology in general. It also seemed to be conceding that the answers to these concerns need to be universal too.
The Silicon Valley tech giants are frequently accused of having a political bias in their thinking that is hostile to conservative perspectives. Normally this wouldn’t matter, but since the likes of Google, Facebook and Twitter have so much control over how everyone gets their information and opinion, any possible bias in the way they do so becomes a matter of public concern.
In an apparent attempt to demonstrate diversity of viewpoints in this new Advanced Technology External Advisory Council (ATEAC), Google included Kay Coles James, who it describes as ‘a public policy expert with extensive experience working at the local, state and federal levels of government. She’s currently President of The Heritage Foundation, focusing on free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom and national defense.’
This decision has upset over a thousand Google employees, however, who made their feelings publicly known yesterday via a an article titled Googlers Against Transphobia and Hate. The piece accuses James of being ‘anti-trans, anti-LGBTQ, and anti-immigrant’ and linked to three recent tweets of hers as evidence.
Beyond those tweets it’s hard to fully test the veracity of those allegations, but it does seem clear that they are largely political. The Equality Act is a piece of US legislation currently being debated in the US House of Representatives, sponsored almost entirely by members of the Democrat Party. The legal status of transsexual people is intrinsically political, as is immigration policy, and attitudes towards them tend to be similarly polarised.
The Googlers Against Transphobia certainly seem to fall into that category, but what makes them noteworthy, apart from their numbers, is that they expect their employer to adhere to their political positions. Google has attempted to defend the appointment of James to one of the eight ATEAC positions by stressing the importance of diversity of thought.
Here’s what the Google dissidents think of that argument. “This is a weaponization of the language of diversity,” they wrote. “By appointing James to the ATEAC, Google elevates and endorses her views, implying that hers is a valid perspective worthy of inclusion in its decision making. This is unacceptable.”
This is just the latest internal insurrection Google has faced from its passionately political workforce. Every time a story emerges about Google working on a special search engine for China there is considerable disquiet among the rank and file, ironically opposed to censorship in this case. And then there was the case of James Damore, sacked by Google for trying to start an internal conversation about gender diversity at the company.
Google’s struggles pale when compared to those of Facebook, however. Every time it seems to have just about recovered from the last crisis it finds itself in a new one. The latest was catalysed by the atrocity committed in New Zealand, in which a gunman killed 50 people praying in two mosques in Christchurch and live-streamed himself on Facebook.
Understandably questions were immediately asked about how Facebook could have allowed that streaming to happen. While it acted quickly to ensure the video and any copies of it were taken down, Facebook was under massive pressure to implement measures to ensure such a thing couldn’t happen again. Its response has been to announce ‘a ban on praise, support and representation of white nationalism and white separatism on Facebook and Instagram.’
These kinds of ideologies are largely rejected by mainstream society for many good reasons, but ideologies they remain. Facebook is also moving against claimed ‘anti-vaxxers’, i.e. people who fear the side-effects of vaccines. They may well be misguided in this fear but it is nonetheless an opinion and, so far, as legal one.
Finding itself under pressure to police ideologies and opinions on its platforms, Facebook seems to have realised this is an impossible task. For every ‘unacceptable’ position it acts against there are thousands waiting in the wings and an obvious extrapolation reveals a future Facebook in which very few points of view are permitted. In apparent acknowledgment of that dilemma Facebook recently called on governments to make a call on censorship, but it should be careful what it wishes for.
Another type of content facing increasing calls for censorship is claimed ‘conspiracy theories, with a recent leak revealing how Facebook agonises over such decisions. Google-owned Facebook is also acting against such content, but seems to prefer sanctions short of outright banning, such as the recent removal of videos published by activist Tommy Robinson from all search results.
Again this puts technology companies in the position of censors of content that often has a political nature. How do you define a conspiracy theory anyway and should all of them be censored? Should, for example, the MSNBC network in the US be sanctioned for aggressively pursuing a narrative of President Trump colluding with Russia to win his general election when a two-year investigation has revealed it to be false? Is that not a conspiracy theory too? Politics and technology collide once more.
The current era of political interference in internet platforms was probably started by the Cambridge Analytica and subsequent allegations that the democratic process had been corrupted. As technology increasingly determines how we view and interact with the world this problem is only going to get bigger and it’s hard to see how technology companies can possibly please all of the people all of the time.
Which brings us back to the start of this piece: AI. The only hope internet they have of monitoring the billions of interactions they host per day is through AI-driven automation. But even that has to be programmed by people with their own personal views and ethics and will need to be responsive to public sentiment as it in turn reacts to events.
As the US President has done so much to demonstrate, technology platforms are now the places much of politics and public discussion take place. At the same time they’re owned by commercial organizations with no legal requirement to serve the public. They have to balance pressure from both professional politicians and the politics of their own employees with the dangers of alienating their users if they’re seen to be biased. Something’s got to give.
This dilemma was illustrated well in a recent Joe Rogan podcast featuring Twitter, which you can see below. In it Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey and his head of content moderation Vijaya Gadde defend themselves from accusations of bias from independent journalist Tim Pool.
In recent days another round of restrictions have been imposed across YouTube and Facebook, with social media companies increasingly being used as proxies in a culture war.
Most recently YouTube announced several new measures related to the safety of minors on YouTube. The main driver seems to be the comments people post on videos, which anyone who uses YouTube knows often range from unsavoury to downright deranged. The specific issue regards those comments on videos that feature minors, so YouTube has disabled all comments on tens of millions of such videos.
On top of that millions of existing comments have been deleted, and a bunch of channels judged to have produced content that could be harmful to minors have been banned, which indicates this is not a new issue. YouTube tends to take its most strident action when its advertising revenues are threatened and a recent exposé on this topic prompted major advertisers, including AT&T, to cancel their deals, hence this announcement.
While YouTube has always been quick to protect its ad revenues, it has historically been less keen to censor comments or ban creators outright, so this definitely marks an escalation. The same can’t be said for Facebook, which seems to be the major platform most inclined to censor at the first sign of trouble. An endless stream of scandals over the past year or two have taken their toll on the company, whichis now in a constant state of fire-fighting.
Facebook’s most recent piece of censorship concerns Tommy Robinson, a controversial UK public figure who concerns himself largely with investigating the negative effects of mass immigration. He recently published a documentary criticising the BBC on YouTube, and presumably promoted it via Facebook and Facebook-owned Instragram, because the latter two platforms decided that was enough to earn him a permanent ban.
In a press release entitled ‘Removing Tommy Robinson’s Page and Profile for Violating Our Community Standards’, published the day after Robinson released his video, Facebook explained that he had repeatedly violated its Ts and Cs by indulging in ill-defined activities such a ‘organised hate’. This seems to be a neologism for some kind of rabble-rousing combined with perceived bigotry.
“This is not a decision we take lightly, but individuals and organizations that attack others on the basis of who they are have no place on Facebook or Instagram,” concludes the press release. This sets an interesting precedent for Facebook as a significant proportion of the content generally found on social media seems to match that description. As is so often the case with any censorship decision, one is left wondering why some people are punished and others aren’t, as YouTuber Argon of Akkad, recently kicked off micro-payments platform Patreon, explores below.
The piece detailed some statistical analysis undertaken by the author to see if there is any solid evidence of bias. Using stated preference for a candidate in the 2016 US presidential election, it was concluded that Trump supporters are four times more likely to be banned that Clinton ones. The piece also highlights some examples of apparently clear braking of Twitter’s rules that nonetheless went unpunished, once more calling into question the consistency of these censorship decisions.
Investigative group Project Veritas, which had previously claimed to have uncovered evidence of ‘shadowbanning’ – i.e. making content from certain accounts harder to find without banning them entirely – has now moved on to Facebook. From apparently the same inside source comes the allegation that Facebook indulges in ‘deboosting’, which seems to amount to much the same thing. You can watch an analysis of this latest report from independent journalist Tim Pool below.
Nick Monroe, another independent journalist whose preferred platform is Twitter, recently reported that “A UK group called Resisting Hate is trying to target my twitter account.” Resisting Hate apparently compiles lists of people it thinks should be banned from various platforms and then coordinates its members to send complaints to the platforms about them.
A UK group called Resisting Hate is trying to target my twitter account.
It seems likely that this mechanism is a major contributing factor to any imbalance in the censoring process. All social media platforms will have algorithms that identify certain stigmatised words and phrases and automatically censor content that contains them, but as even the UK police have shown, that is a very crude without the ability to understand context. They therefore rely heavily on their reporting mechanisms, a process that intrinsically open to abuse by groups with a clear agenda.
And it looks like calls for censorship are starting to spread beyond just single-issue activist groups into the mainstream media – the one set of people you would previously have imagined would be most opposed to censorship. Tim Pool, once more, flags up a piece published by tech site Wired that, quite rightly, flags up the inconsistency of the censorship process, but then takes the step of calling out some other ‘far right activists’ it thinks Facebook should ban while it’s at it.
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey recently did the interview rounds, including with several independent podcasters. While he was generally viewed as being a bit too evasive, he did concede that a censorship process which relies heavily on third party is flawed and open to abuse. The problem is there is now so much commercial, regulatory and political scrutiny on the big social media platforms that they have to be seen to act when ‘problematic’ content is flagged up.
You don’t need to spend much time on social media to realise that it’s the battle ground for a culture war between those in favour of (selective) censorship and those who want speech to be as free as possible. There is unlikely to ever be a clear winner, but there is little evidence that censorship ever achieves the outcomes it claims to desire: protecting people from harm.
Nobody is forced to consume any content they don’t like and censorship never changes anyone’s mind – it just drives speech and ideas underground and, if anything, entrenches the positions of those who hold them. To sign off we must give a nod to the hugely popular podcaster Joe Rogan, who recently conducted a 4-5 hour live stream with Alex Jones, a polarising figure that has been kicked off pretty much every platform. You can watch it below or not – it’s your choice.
Challenger brands need to try harder to get noticed, but this approach can sometimes backfire, as Three UK found out this week.
Three is hoping to build on its #PhonesAreGood campaign, launched in October last year, that took a tongue-in-cheek look at all the negative press around smartphone addiction by imagining some historical scenarios that would have been changed for the better with the involvement of a smartphone.
One of those scenarios concerned King Henry the Eighth, who notoriously got through six wives by the time he called it a day. The joke is that if he’d had some kind of dating app at the time he might have been able to make up his mind about them prior to marriage and thus a couple of them could have been spared the chop.
In the build up to Valentine’s Day some bright spark in Three UK’s marketing department thought it might be a laugh to promote this part of the campaign with a tweet entitled ‘Shag, marry or behead’. This was presumably a nod to the ‘kiss, marry, kill’ game and maybe even the phrase used by history students to remember what happened to Henry’s wives: ‘Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced beheaded survived’.
Now you don’t have to be the most committed social justice warrior to know that Twitter is not the place for nuance or humour and anything that can be taken offence to will be. While the tweet was clearly a joke, there was always the possibility that it could be perceived as some kind of trivialising or even endorsement of domestic violence by someone.
That someone was apparently mumsnet member Jeanhatchet, who flagged up the tweet on the site’s forum. “The 3 mobile network are laughing at domestic homicide in this tweet, Jeanhatchet wrote. “In many of the women killed as a result of intimate partner violence blunt force trauma to or being stabbed in the head is a feature.
“The most worrying thing is …. how did this marketing meeting go? What views were expressed about killing women? How that was funny and would sell more contracts and phones? Imagine those men who sanctioned this and how common their views are that it never registered as a marketing disaster? https://twitter.com/threeuk/status/1095740892919541761?s=21” Three seems to have taken down the offending tweet by here’s a screenshot of it courtesy of Jeanhatchet. Google is also still acknowledging the original tweet.
That was enough for the Manchester Evening News to get involved, which committed not one but two dogged hacks to the job of writing up this mumsnet post and the rest of the claimed ‘flurry of complaints’ around Three’s tweet. Even their combined efforts weren’t enough to ensure the faithful representation of the discussion thread they were copying-and-pasting, however, with one of Jeanhatchet’s early comments wrongly attributed to Lolkittens5, to whom she was responding.
Hot on their heels was Labour MP James Frith, who apparently spent most of yesterday working himself up in to an impressive froth of righteous indignation. “This is a disgraceful ad,” he opened. “Misogynistic and violent towards women. The disgrace of it. I hope you’re fined big time for this with proceeds sent to women’s refuges. Utterly shameful @ThreeUK”
This is a disgraceful ad. Misogynistic and violent towards women. The disgrace of it. I hope you’re fined big time for this with proceeds sent to women’s refuges. Utterly shameful @ThreeUKhttps://t.co/alG9YcwaIM
Three, of course, tried the standard ‘we are sorry for any offence caused’ defence but, as is nearly always the case, it was too little too late. Apparently emboldened by the 30 likes and four retweets his initial Twitter salvo received Frith doubled down, including the textbook move of calling for an apology and then rejecting it when it was made. He concluded by vowing to grass Three up to the ASA before wrapping up his busy day by retweeting a story about how great his constituency is.
Unperturbed Three announced a new marketing initiative today around London Fashion Week. It’s claiming to have launched the world’s first 5G mixed reality catwalk, It ‘uses innovative start up Rewind and its Magic Leap mixed reality technology alongside Three’s 5G network, which will see the designer’s inspirations come to life on the catwalk,’ according to the press release.
Somehow this involves the son of singer Liam Gallagher and actress Patsy Kensit, who is apparently a world-renowned model and, as you can see below, has inherited his father’s petulant resting face. Perhaps this is intended to distract from Three’s rather weak 5G claims, with vague talk of IoT and AR the only substantiation offered.
“Today we are turning up the volume on 5G and bringing it to life for the first time in the UK, right here in the heart of the fashion world,” said Shadi Halliwell, chief marketing officer at Three. “By giving students access to the next generation of mobile technology, they will be able to push the boundaries of learning, innovation and sustainability to create in a way that’s never been possible.”
Halliwell, who presumably signed-off on the problematic tweet, will be hoping this new initiative will be free from controversy, or maybe not. It’s possible that the tweet was made in the hope of a bit of viral exposure, but that seems unlikely when you consider how quickly it was deleted. One thing, at least, Three will have gained from the experience is the knowledge that guerrilla marketing is a very high-risk strategy these days.
In just the third year of the EU’s Orwellian online speech purge it looks like the major platforms are largely submitting to its will.
The EU Code of Conduct on countering illegal hatespeech online has been going since 2016 as “an effort to respond to the proliferation of racist and xenophobic hate speech online.” The EU seemed to have decided that if you stop people saying horrid things online then you’ll also stop them having horrid thoughts and doing horrid things.
To implement this theory the EU needed the cooperation of the major platforms run by Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and Google. It will have done the usual thing of threatening vindictive regulatory action if they didn’t comply so sensibly they have. They are now assessing 89% of content flagged as hatespeech within 24 hours and removing 72% of it.
Certain forms of conduct as outlined below, are punishable as criminal offences:
public incitement to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of such a group defined on the basis of race, colour, descent, religion or belief, or national or ethnic origin;
the above-mentioned offence when carried out by the public dissemination or distribution of tracts, pictures or other material;
publicly condoning, denying or grossly trivialising crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes as defined in the Statute of the International Criminal Court (Articles 6, 7 and 8) and crimes defined in Article 6 of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal, when the conduct is carried out in a manner likely to incite violence or hatred against such a group or a member of such a group.
Instigating, aiding or abetting in the commission of the above offences is also punishable.
With regard to these offences listed, EU countries must ensure that they are punishable by:
effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties;
a term of imprisonment of a maximum of at least one year.
With regard to legal persons, the penalties must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive and must consist of criminal or non-criminal fines. In addition, legal persons may be punished by:
exclusion from entitlement to public benefits or aid;
temporary or permanent disqualification from the practice or commercial activities;
being placed under judicial supervision;
a judicial winding-up order.
The initiation of investigations or prosecutions of racist and xenophobic offences must not depend on a victim’s report or accusation.
In all cases, racist or xenophobic motivation shall be considered to be an aggravating circumstance or, alternatively, the courts must be empowered to take such motivation into consideration when determining the penalties to be applied.
If you couldn’t be bothered to read all that, the TL;DR is that you can’t say horrid things online if race, nationality, belief, etc comes into it, or even join in if someone else does. If you do all sorts of punishments will be inflicted on you, including a year in prison (as maximum of at least one year? That doesn’t make sense). The victim of such hatespeech doesn’t even need to have accused you of anything and the court reserves the right to determine your motivation for doing stuff.
“Today’s evaluation shows that cooperation with companies and civil society brings results,” said Andrus Ansip, Vice-President for the Digital Single Market. “Companies are now assessing 89% of flagged content within 24 hours, and promptly act to remove it when necessary. This is more than twice as much as compared to 2016. More importantly, the Code works because it respects freedom of expression. The internet is a place people go to share their views and find out information at the click of a button. Nobody should feel unsafe or threatened due to illegal hateful content remaining online.”
“Illegal hate speech online is not only a crime, it represents a threat to free speech and democratic engagement,” said Vĕra Jourová, Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality. “In May 2016, I initiated the Code of conduct on online hatespeech, because we urgently needed to do something about this phenomenon. Today, after two and a half years, we can say that we found the right approach and established a standard throughout Europe on how to tackle this serious issue, while fully protecting freedom of speech.”
Those statements are perfectly Orwellian, insisting as they do that censorship is free speech. The really chilling thing is that they clearly believe that imposing broad and vague restrictions on online speech is vital to protect the freedom of nice, compliant non-hateful people. The EC even had the gall to berate the platforms for not offering enough feedback to those it censors. This could easily be resolved with a blanket statement along the lines of “We’re just following orders.”
As you can see from the tweet below extracted from the full report, the types of things that qualify as hatespeech have increased since the above definition was written. This kind of mission creep is made all the more inevitable by the complicity of Silicon Valley and complete absence of dissenting media, so there’s every reason to assume the definition of hatespeech will continue to expand indefinitely.
A number of independent online commentators have been blacklisted by technology giants for seemingly arbitrary reasons.
The past few weeks have seen another round of purging of content creators who rely on the internet for a living. The reasons for doing so are varied but usually default to some kind of transgression of their terms and conditions of use. However these Ts and Cs tend to be vaguely worded and appear to be selectively enforced, leading to fears that these decisions have been driven as much by subjective ideology as exceptional misbehaviour on the part of creators.
If there is an ideological bias it would appear to be against those commentators that are advocates of freedom of speech and unfettered dialogue. On the other side of the fence you have those who are concerned with concepts such as ‘hate speech’, which seek to ensure nothing that is deemed ‘offensive’ should be tolerated in the public domain.
Those latter terms are ill-defined and thus subject to a wide range of interpretation, which means rules that rely on them will, by definition, be subjectively enforced. In spite of that there is growing evidence that Silicon Valley companies are unanimous in their assessments of who should and shouldn’t be banned from all of their public platforms.
We have previously written about the coordinated banning of InfoWars from pretty much all internet publication channels and a subsequent purge of ‘inauthentic activity’ from social media. Now we can add commentator Gavin McInnes to the list of people apparently banned from all public internet platforms and, most worryingly of all, the removal of popular YouTuber Sargon of Akkad from micro-funding platform Patreon.
The internet, social media and especially YouTube have revolutionised the way in which regular punters get access to information, commentary and discussion. Free from the constraints imposed on broadcast TV, YouTubers have heralded a new era of on-demand, unfettered, user-generated content that has rapidly superseded TV as the viewing platform of choice.
Their primary source of income has traditionally been the core internet model: monetizing traffic via serving ads. But YouTube has been removing ads from any videos that have even the slightest chance of upsetting any of its advertisers for some time, forcing creators to call for direct funding from their audience to compensate.
The best-known micro-funding service is Patreon, which is where many YouTubers send their audience if they want to pay for their content. Any decision by Patreon to ban its users can therefore have massive implications for the career and income of the recipient of the ban. Sargon is thought to have had revenues from Patreon alone in excess of £100,000 per year, a revenue stream that has been unilaterally cut off without even a warning, it seems.
Every time an internet company moves against a popular internet figure there is inevitably outcry on both sides of the matter. Prominent advocates of free speech such as Jordan Peterson and Dave Rubin have tweeted their support for Sargon, while many media are actively celebrating the punishing or outright removal from the internet of people they don’t like.
The age-old debate concerning the optimal balance between safety and freedom is being won by those biased in favour of the former on the internet. The leaders of those companies are in a difficult position regarding censorship of their platforms but they seem to be basing their decisions on fear of the internet mob rather than rational, objective enforcement of universal rules. This isn’t a new phenomenon but it seems to be rapidly getting worse.
To finish here’s YouTuber and independent journalist Tim Pool giving his perspective while he still can.